Aims to “Reduce inequalities within and among countries”.
Let's learn a little more about SDG 10.
SDG 10 deals with reducing inequalities within and among countries. At the very core of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals is the heart to ensure that no one is left behind, a vision which cannot be achieved without addressing the quality of life of the most vulnerable sections of society.
Inequality here refers various kinds of disparities based on aspects like income, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion and opportunity. While ‘within countries’ the focus is to promote inclusive social and economic growth, on the other hand ‘among the countries’ there is a need for better representation of developing countries on key global platforms to ensure that both discussions and solutions for macro level challenges can be more credible.
While inequalities were already severe towards the end of the last decade, the COVID-19 pandemic coupled with existing regional conflicts has greatly exacerbated and deepened the problem, hitting the poorest and the most vulnerable communities the hardest and diminishing the existing social safety nets that were already stressed.
Despite some positive signs, inequality is growing for more than 70% of the global population, multiplying the risks of divisions, and hampering economic and social development. Thus, it is important to ensure a life of dignity for all. Policies need to be universal and pay special attention to the disadvantaged and marginalized communities.
SGI President Daisaku Ikeda writes in the 2017 Peace Proposal: “Even if there is a sense of comfort felt by people when they are surrounded by others who share the same culture or ethnic group, we must remain vigilant against the danger that this group consciousness will metamorphose into violent discrimination or antagonism directed at other groups at times of heightened social tension… To categorize and discriminate against individuals on the basis of a single attribute is wrong; it is a source of division that undermines society as a whole.
Deepening inequality not only impacts the poorest sections of the society but negatively impacts the entire society as a whole encompassing people across income levels. Inequality due to any reason hampers and threatens long term social and economic development. Inequality harms poverty reduction and destroys people’s sense of fulfilment and self-worth. This can result in crime, disease and environmental degradation. There can be no sustainable development if people are excluded from the chance to lead a better life.
In his 2013 Peace Proposal President Ikeda discussed the work of researchers on why more equal societies do better, noting that “with greater inequality, people are less caring of one another, there is less mutuality in relationships, people have to fend for themselves and get what they can--so, inevitably, there is less trust." Further, because "inequality seems to make countries socially dysfunctional across a wide range of outcomes, it is not just the poor but people at almost all income levels who fare badly in more unequal societies.”
Evidence from developing countries shows that children in the poorest 20 percent of the populations are still up to three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children in the richest quintiles.
Up to 30 percent of income inequality is due to inequality within households, including between women and men. Women are also more likely than men to live below 50 percent of the median income.
Of the one billion population of persons with disabilities, 80 percent live in developing countries.
One in ten children is a child with a disability.
Only 28 percent of persons with significant disabilities have access to disability benefits globally, and only 1 percent in low-income countries.
By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.
By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.
Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard.
Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality.
Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations.
Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions.
Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies.
Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements.
Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes.
By 2030, reduce to less than 3 percent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 percent.
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